• Crenshaw, K. (1991), “Mapping the Margins: Intersectionality, Identity Politics, and Violence against Women of Color,” Stanford Law Review, 43, 1241–1299. DOI: 10.2307/1229039.
  • Haraway, D. (1988), “Situated Knowledges: The Science Question in Feminism and the Privilege of Partial Perspective,” Feminist Studies, 14, 575–599. DOI: 10.2307/3178066.


  • Foucault, M. (1990), “The History of Sexuality. Volume 1: An Introduction,” London: Random House. Link.
  • Foucault, M. (2008), “The Birth of Biopolitics: Lectures at the Collège de France, 1978–79,” Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. DOI: 10.1057/9780230594180.
  • Jasanoff, S. (2004), “States of Knowledge: The co-Production of Science and Social Order,” New York: Routledge.
  • Koopman, C. (2017, March 15), “The Power Thinker: Why Foucault’s Work on Power is More Important than Ever,” Aeon. Link.

Sociotechnical Systems

  • Akrich, M. (1992). “The De-Scription of Technological Objects,” in Shaping Technology/Building Society,” eds. W. E. Bijker and J. Law, pp. 205–224, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  • Latour, B. (1992), “Where are the Missing Masses? The Sociology of a Few Mundane Artifacts,” In Shaping Technology/Building Society, eds. W. E. Bijker and J. Law, pp. 225–258, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  • Orlikowski, W. J. (2000), “Using Technology and Constituting Structures: A Practice Lens for Studying Technology in Organizations,” Organization Science, 11, 404–428. DOI: 10.1287/orsc.11.4.404.14600.
  • Hutchby, I. (2001), “Technologies, Texts and Affordances,” Sociology, 35, 441–456. DOI: 10.1177/S0038038501000219.
  • Hutchins, E. (1991), “The Social Organization of Distributed Cognition,” in Perspectives on Socially Shared Cognition, eds. L. B. Resnick, J. M. Levine, and S. D. Teasley, pp. 283–307, Washington DC: American Psychological Association.


  • Butler, J. (2005), “Giving an Account of Oneself (Vol. 1st),” New York: Fordham University Press. Link.
  • Jasanoff, S., and Kim, S.-H., eds. (2015), “Dreamscapes of Modernity: Sociotechnical Imaginaries and the Fabrication of Power,” Chicago, IL: Chicago University Press. Link.
  • Meretoja, H. (2018), “The Ethics of Storytelling: Narrative Hermeneutics, History, and the Possible,” Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Puschmann, C., and Burgess, J. (2014), “Metaphors of Big Data,” International Journal of Communication, 8, 1690–1709.
  • Ricœur, P. (1988), “Time and Narrative,” Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
  • Stark, L., and Hoffmann, A. L. (2019), “Data Is the New What? Popular Metaphors & Professional Ethics in Emerging Data Culture,” Journal of Cultural Analytics, 1–22. DOI: 10.31235/

Case Studies

Estimating Population with Cell Phone Records

  • Deville P., Linard, C., Martin S., Gilbert M., Stevens F., Gaughan A., Vincent. Blondel, V. Tatem, A. (2014) “Dynamic population mapping using mobile phone data,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 111, Issue 45, pp 15888-15893; DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1408439111
  • Blumenstock, J., Cadamuro, G., and On, R.(2015), “Predicting poverty and wealth from mobile phone metadata,” Science, Vol 350, Issue 6264, pp. 1073-1076 DOI: 10.1126/science.aac4420
  • Blumenstock, J. (2016), “Fighting poverty with data: Machine learning algorithms target and measure poverty,” Science 353 (6301), 753-754. DOI: 10.1126/science.aah5217 
  • Shearmur, R. (2015), “Dazzled by Data: Big Data, the Census, and Urban Geography,” Urban Geography, 36, 965–968. DOI: 10.1080/02723638.2015.1050922
  • You, J. (2014), “Taking the census, with cellphones, Mobile phone records could map populations and their movements,” Science, DOI: 10.1126/article.53174

Paying your share

Cook County articles
  • Grotto, J. (2017), “Tribune Watchdog The Tax Divide”, Chicago Tribune, accessed on 01.18.23, Link
  • Kambhampati S., Grotto, J., (2017), “How We Analyzed Commercial and Industrial Property Assessments in Chicago and Cook County,” ProPublica Illinois, accessed on 01.18.23, Link
  • Grotto J., Dardick, H., (2018) “Berrios property tax assessments for Cook County homeowners are flawed and unfair, study confirms,” Chicago Tribune, accessed on 01.18.23, Link
  • ProPublica (2018), “ProPublica Illinois a Finalist for the Pulitzer Prize for Local Reporting,” ProPublica, accessed on 01.18.23, Link
  • Ross, R.  (2019), “Why the Cook County Assessor’s Office made its residential assessment code and data public voluntarily,” Medium, accessed on 01.18.23, Link
  • Serrato J., Sier P., and Runes C., South Side Weekly, “Mapping Chicago's Racial Segregation,” Firsthand segregation, WTTW, accessed on 01.18.23, Link
New York Articles
  • Grotto J. , Melby C., Rojanasakul M., Murray P. (2021), “How a $2 Million Condo in Brooklyn Ends Up With a $157 Tax Bill,” Bloomberg, accessed on 01.18.23, Link
  • Grotto, J., Melby, C. (2021), “Unfair and Unpaid: A Property Tax Money Machine Crushes Families,” Bloomberg, accessed on 01.18.23,  Link
  • Grotto, J. (2021), “Methodology: How Bloomberg News Examined New York City’s Valuation of Class 2 Residential Properties,” Bloomberg, accessed on 01.18.23, Link

Crowd the Tap

  • Cooper C. (2020), “The Power of Citizen Science,” Smithsonian Institution traveling exhibition, accessed on 01.18.23, Link
  • Allf, B. (2019) Crowd the Tap: Empowering Communities to Examine Their Lead Exposure, Discover, accessed on 01.18.23, Link
  • Crowd the Tap website, accessed on 01.18.23, Link
  • Scistarter, Link

Additional Resources on the Data Science Lifecycle and Infusing Ethics into Data Science

  • Baumer, B., Garcia, R., Kim, A., Kinnaird, K., and Ott, M. (2022), “Integrating Data Science Ethics Into an Undergraduate Major: A Case Study,” Journal of Statistics and Data Science Education, 30, 15–28. DOI: 10.1080/26939169.2022.203804.
  • Fiesler, C., Garrett, N., and Beard, N. (2020), “What Do We Teach When We Teach Tech Ethics?: A Syllabi Analysis,” in Proceedings of the 51st ACM Technical Symposium on Computer Science Education, 289-295. DOI: 10.1145/3328778.3366825.
  • Grosz, B. J., Grant, D. G., Vredenburgh, K., Behrends, J., Hu, L., Simmons, A., and Waldo, J. (2019), “Embedded EthiCS: Integrating ethics across CS education,” Communications of the ACM, 62, 54–61. DOI: 10.1145/3330794.
  • Hoffmann, A. L., and Cross, K. A. (2021), “Teaching Data Ethics: Foundations and Possibilities from Engineering and Computer Science Ethics Education,” Link.
  • Janeja, V. (2019, April 4), “Do No Harm: An Ethical Data Life Cycle |S&T Policy FellowsCentral,” AAAS Science and Technology Policy Fellowships. Link
  • Joyce, K. A., Darfler, K., George, D., Ludwig, J., and Unsworth, K. (2018), “Engaging STEM Ethics Education,” Engaging Science, Technology, and Society, 4, 1–7. DOI: 10.17351/ests2018.221.
  • Keller, S. A., Shipp, S. S., Schroeder, A. D., and Korkmaz, G. (2020), “Doing Data Science: A Framework and Case Study,” Harvard Data Science Review, 2. DOI: 10.1162/99608f92.2d83f7f5.
  • Markham, A. N., Tiidenberg, K., and Herman, A. (2018), “Ethics as Methods: Doing Ethics in the Era of Big Data Research—Introduction,” Social Media + Society, 4, 1–9. DOI: 10.1177/2056305118784502.
  • Saltz, J., Skirpan, M., Fiesler, C., Gorelick, M., Yeh, T., Heckman, R., Dewar, N., and Beard, N. (2019), “Integrating Ethics Within Machine-learning Courses,” ACM Transactions on Computing Education, 19, 1–26. DOI: 10.1145/3341164.
  • Stodden, V. (2020), “The Data Science Life Cycle: A Disciplined Approach to Advancing Data Science as a Science,” Communications of the ACM, 63, 58–66. DOI: 10.1145/3360646.